Q16. How are nuclear security, nuclear disarmament, and nuclear nonproliferation different from each other?
Nuclear security denotes measures to prevent nuclears materials from getting in the hands of the terrorists. IAEA defines nuclear security as "prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities".
Nuclear disarmament means to decrease the number of countries having nuclear weapons. For example, the U.S. and Russia signed New START treaty in 2010 to decrase the number of operational nuclear warheads to 1,550.
Nuclear nonprolieferation includes measures to prevent countries other than the ones allowed under NPT (U.S., Russia, Great Britian, France, China) to make nuclear weapons and to protect the right of using nuclear energy in peaceful way.
Major measures for nuclear security
- minimize nuclear materials
- prevent sabotage on nuclear reactors
- setting design basis threat
- nuclear accounting
- nuclear forensics
- border control
- ban illicit trafficking
- transport security
- information security
Q. 17 What are international norms related nuclear security?
International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism(ICSANT)
● Came into effect in July 2007
● Signed by 115 nations , Ratified and Joined by 77 nations(2011.9.2 Criteria)
● Activity of damaging nuclear facilities using methods of devising, possessing, using, releasing nuclear and radioactive materials in purpose of life killing, destruction of property and environment are designatd as crime and punished
Revised Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material(CPPNM)
● Announced in 1987, Amendments adopted in July 2005
● Each country within jurisdiction fullfils suitable protection managements on nuclear materials within the coutry and that are being transported internationally, and apply punishment according to domestic laws on robbery, embezzlement and extortion of nuclear materials
● Especially, Revised CPPNM added protective measures on nuclear facilities
UN Security Council Resolution 1540 (compulsory norms)
● Adopted to block the expansion of WMD on terror groups in April 2004
● Made an Obligation of legislation and execution of control on nonproliferation and exports, and regulated to submit a nation report including domestic actions within 6 months
Q.18 What are the international cooperative activities that have been conducted for nuclear security until now?
G8 Global partnership
● Backgroud : after 9.11 terror, it was founded in June 2002 at G8 summit for administration and regulation of formal soviet-Union's WMD(Participation of 25 nations)
● Key Projects : Reinforcement of facility protection of nuclear materials, Chemical Equipment Disposal, Scientists re-employment and so on within Russia and Ukraine
● The Republic of Korea participated in June 2004 and has contributed $4,600,000 till 2010
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT)
● Backgroud : Founded in July 2006, led by USA and Russia to prevent illigal trades of nuclear materials and promote exchange of information on nuclear terrorism countermeasures
● Participation of 82 nations and 4 observers (IAEA, EU, Interpol and UNODC)
● The Republic of Korea held GICNT general assembly (From June 29th to June 30th in Daejun)
Q 19. What implications does the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident give to nuclear security?
The method of nuclear terrorism or radiological terrorism has been recognized as terrorists mainly manufacturing nuclear or radiological explosive devices by acquiring nuclear materials.
However, after the leakage of nuclear radiation on the accident in Fukushima, which happened by a failure in the cooling system of the nuclear power plant, awareness has increased that similar damage can occur, such as the malfunctioning of important parts of the nuclear facilities or nuclear destruction or sabotage due to vehicle crashes, rather than seizing nuclear material.
Q 20. What is Korea's nuclear security system and policies?
National Laws related to nuclear security
● Atomic Energy Law
○ After the amendment of the "Atomic Energy Law" in 1995, some concerns related to nuclear security are reflected
○ Guarantee physical protection measures for nuclear facilities and the transportation of nuclear material
● Measures for physical protection and prevention of radiation of nuclear facilities
○ Disaster Protection Law enacted in 2004
○ Set protective measures for nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, and introduce the system of inspection and examination to check the implementation.
The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control was established
● Based on the Atomic Energy Law revised in 2005, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, a firm that conducts measures of safety and physical protection for nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, was established in 2006.
● Inspects regularly the state of protection of Korea's nuclear facilities and through education and training of protection, operates and maintains national nuclear security systems
Expected the Installation of the Nuclear Safety Commission
● After the accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant, the new Nuclear Safety Commission, by ministers who work for the president to control nuclear safety and nuclear security issues and to strengthen the supervision, will be installed during 2011.