Q1. What is Nuclear Security Summit?
Nuclear Security Summit, which the highest level of forum that aims to stop nuclear terrorism, is a convention to strenghthen the world's protection management and international cooperation in order to prevent nuclear materials and facilities from terrorist groups.
US president Obama declared that he will make an effort to safely secure vulnerable nuclear materials in four years. As a result, in April of 2010, the first Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington.
-The concept of nuclear security
It is to prevent direct and indirect threats from nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and related facilities or activities. When the threat occurs, it blocks the threat by detecting and delaying
Q2. Is Nuclear Security Summit such a big issue to be discussed by 50 countries?
In the modern era, nuclear terrorism is one of the most serious threat. Even one single nuclear terror will result in mass destruction, immense suffering, and unwanted change forever. We need to act on preventing such disaster.
UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon (2007. 6)
Nuclear terrorism is a real threat, not imaginary.
9/11 terror, which hit downtown skyscraper with commercial aircraft showed us that terrorism using WMD such as nuclear weapon have become a real threat.
The awareness of threats caused by nuclear terrorism may differ among nations, but worst scenario should always be considered for security matters. Also it is clever to prepare nuclear or dirty bomb terrorism though is has possibility of 0.01%.
Unchanging milieu against terrorist threats.
It is generally evaluated that terrorism eradicating environment has not improved after the Osama Bin Laden death.
For non-state entities, such as terrorists, to make nuclear weapons, there must be preceding secret process which includes acquisition of nuclear materials, producing weapon, and border crossing illegal trading, which cannot be regulated by a single country.
Therefore cooperation among nations is absolutely needed, such as border control and mutual investigation.
Nuclear terrorism is a challenge for international society.
Nowaday, in the age of globalization, as interdependence between nations is intensifying, nuclear terrorism is a big challenge for all international society, not just for US and the western nations. And South Korea is not an exception.
Nuclear Security Summit, the heads of world leading countries gather in one space to share their knowledge about nuclear terrorism, and discuss measures to prevent this terrorism carries an very important meaning.
Q3. Has nuclear security been discusssed recently?
It has been discussed since 1960s
No. Nuclear security is that the international movement of nuclear materials has been active since the peaceful use of nuclwear energy increased in the late 1960s. The goal of nucelar security is to protect stealing of nuclear materials and ensure the supply of nuclear fuel.
Raise the necessity after the Cold War ended
Since then, nuclear materials in the former Soviet Union and management issues of nuclear facilities became an important topic as the Cold War ended in the early 1990s and the goal of nuclear security was to discard, reduce and protect nuclear materials·facilities in the same region at that time.
Realistic necessity significantly increased after 9·11 attack
The possible abuse of nuclear materials and facilities by terrorist groups became the most realistic threat after 9·11 attack in 2001 and nuclear security has been emphasized to deal with nuclear terrorism.
Q4. Is it actually possible for terrorists to use nuclear weapons?
Terrorists' use of nuclear weapons is a real threat
It is known that 25 kg of highly enriched uranium or 8 kg of plutonium is needed to build a single nuclear weapon.
So it is important that uranium or plutonium does not get into the hands of the terrorists and gets used to make nuclear weapons.
Nuclear materials that can make 126,500 nuclear weapons are scattered all around the globe
Currently, there are 1,600 tons of highly enriched uranium and 500 tons of plutonium available around the world. With this much nuclear material, approximately 126,500 nuclear weapons can be made.
If terrorists can detonate a single nuclear weapon in the middle of a city, hundreds and thousands of people will die and financial systems around the world will stop, causing a catastrophic disaster.
Also, the damange done to the politics, environment, world, and people's psychology
Q5. What are the main results of The First Washington Nuclear Security Summit?
Adoption of the summit declaration 'Washington Communiqué'
Declared, "Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to the international security, and strong nuclear security action is the most effective measure to prevent the acquisition of nuclear meterials by terrorists."
Agreement on 'Work Plan'
Agreed on 50 detailed cooperative nuclear security measures in 11 fields through seperate Work Plan document.
Contribution of the Republic of Korea(ROK)
Another main outcome that had been focused in the Washigton Summit is that about 30 participating nations have stated national commitment, or 'house gift' country-by-country, which includes collection and minimization of high-enriched uranium, ratification of nuclear security related agreements, expansion of contribution on IAEA nuclear security fund, joining GICNT and establishment of nuclear security training centers etc.
ROK has received good appraisal from participating nations by announcing opening of the GICNT general assembly and establishment plan of international nuclear security education training center within ROK as a part of measures on contribution to strengten the international nuclear security system.
* 2010 The First Washington Nuclear Security Summit
● Date and Place: 2010. 4. 12~13, Washington U.S.
● Participating Nations: 47 head of the nations, representatives of UN·IAEA·EU
● Main Results: 'Washington Communiqué,' which contains agreement on strengthening nuclear security. Adoption of detailed 'Work Plan'
Main dicussion points
● Minimization of HEU:higly enriched uranium
● legislation measure regarding nuclear security and joining international agreement
● Practice measures such as sharing informationa and Best Practices
● Bilateral cooperation on prevention of nuclear terrorism
● Multilateral cooperation such as G8 Global Partnership and GICNT
● coopertion through international institution such as IAEA and UN